Background: The intent of endovascular therapy for symptomatic atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is to preserve parenchyma and avoid renal-related morbidity. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of renal artery intervention on parenchymal preservation. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of records from patients who underwent endovascular intervention for ARAS and were followed by duplex ultrasound between 1990 and 2008. Renal volume (in cm3) was estimated in all patients as renal length (cm) × renal width (cm) × renal depth (cm) × 0.5. The normal renal volume was calculated as 2 × body weight (kg) in cm 3. Failure of preservation was considered to be a persistent 10% decrease in volume. Clinical benefit defined as freedom from renal-related morbidity (increase in persistent creatinine >20% of baseline, progression to hemodialysis, death from renal-related causes) was calculated. Results: Five hundred ninety-two renal artery interventions were performed. One hundred eighty-six kidneys suffered parenchymal loss (>5%) with an actuarial parenchymal loss rate of 29% ± 1% at five years respectively. There were no significant differences in age, gender, starting renal volume, or kidney size. However, patients with parenchymal loss had lower eGFR (45 ± 24 vs 53 ± 24 mL/min/1.73 m2; Loss vs noLoss, P =.0002, Mean ± SD) higher resistive index (0.75 ± 0.9 vs 0.73 ± 0.10; P =.0001) and worse nephrosclerosis grade (1.43 ± 0.55 vs 1.30 ± 0.49; P =.006) then those not suffering parenchymal loss. Parenchymal loss was associated with significantly worse five-year survival (26% ± 4% vs 48% ± 2%; Loss vs noLoss; P <.001) and freedom from renal-related morbidity (70% ± 5% vs 82% ± 2%; P <.05) with increased numbers progressing to dialysis (17% vs 7%; P <.006). Conclusion: While parenchymal preservation occurs in most patients, parenchymal loss occurs in 31% of patients and is associated with markers of impaired parenchymal perfusion (resistive index and nephrosclerosis grade) at the time of intervention. Pre-existing renal size or volumes were not predictive of parenchymal loss. Parenchymal loss is associated with a significant decrease in survival and a marked increased renal related morbidity and progression to hemodialysis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine