Renal Carcinogenesis, Tumor Heterogeneity, and Reactive Oxygen Species: Tactics Evolved

Karthigayan Shanmugasundaram, Karen Block

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Significance: The number of kidney cancers is growing 3-5% each year due to unknown etiologies. Intra- and inter-tumor mediators increase oxidative stress and drive tumor heterogeneity. Recent Advances: Technology advancement in state-of-the-art instrumentation and methodologies allows researchers to detect and characterize global landscaping modifications in genes, proteins, and pathophysiology patterns at the single-cell level. Critical Issues: We postulate that the sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their activation within subcellular compartments will change over a timeline of tumor evolvement and contribute to tumor heterogeneity. Therefore, the complexity of intracellular changes within a tumor and ROS-induced tumor heterogeneity coupled to the advancement of detecting these events globally are limited at the level of data collection, organization, and interpretation using software algorithms and bioinformatics. Future Directions: Integrative and collaborative research, combining the power of numbers with careful experimental design, protocol development, and data interpretation, will translate cancer biology and therapeutics to a heightened level or leave the abundant raw data as stagnant and underutilized. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 685-701.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)685-701
Number of pages17
JournalAntioxidants and Redox Signaling
Issue number12
StatePublished - Oct 20 2016


  • NOX oxidases
  • high-throughput analysis
  • mitochondrial electron transfer chain
  • oxidative stress
  • renal cancer
  • tumor heterogeneity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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