Pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms are abnormal dilatations of the vessel lumen. Pseudoaneurysm is a perfused hematoma contained by the adventitia and perivascular tissues that is in communication with the lumen of an adjacent artery or vein. Aneurysm is a dilatation of the vessel lumen involving all three layers of the blood vessel wall. Renal artery aneurysms (RAA) are uncommon but the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging and incidental detection of RAA may result in an increasing number of cases diagnosed. Renal artery pseudoaneurysms are suspected in bleeding patients after penetrating renal trauma. Imaging plays a major role in the detection of renal pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms and diagnoses aneurysm rupture and active bleeding. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and digital subtraction angiography can characterize lesion size, shape, and location and identify other aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, helping to narrow the differential diagnosis and to understand the vascular anatomy for guiding proper treatment. Endovascular treatments have contributed considerably in the management of renal pseudoaneurysms and aneurysms. The use of coil embolization or covered stent placement prevents the mortality and mobility of surgery. The article describes imaging features and the endovascular therapies to treat these vascular processes and their possible complications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging