Relationship between thin-film bond strength as measured by a scratch test, and indentation hardness for bonding agents

Shusuke Kusakabe, H. Ralph Rawls, Masato Hotta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Objectives To evaluate thin-film bond strength between a bonding agent and human dentin, using a scratch test, and the characteristics and accuracy of measurement. Methods One-step bonding agents (BeautiBond; Bond Force; Adper Easy Bond; Clearfil tri-S Bond) and two-step bonding agents (Cleafil SE Bond; FL-Bond II) were investigated in this study. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared for extracted human molars. The dentin surfaces were ground and bonding agents were applied and light cured. The thin-film bond strength test of the specimens was evaluated by the critical load at which the coated bonding agent failed and dentin appeared. The scratch mark sections were then observed under a scanning electron microscope. Indentation hardness was evaluated by the variation in depth under an applied load of 10 gf. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA with the Scheffé's post hoc multiple comparison test (p < 0.05). In addition, thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness were analyzed using analysis of correlation and covariance. Results The thin-film bond strength of two-step bonding agents were found to be significantly higher than that of one-step bonding agents with small standard deviations. Scratch marks consistently showed adhesive failure in the vicinity of the bonding agent/dentin interface. The indentation hardness showed a trend that two-step bonding agents have greater hardness than one-step bonding agents. A moderately significant correlation (r2 = 0.31) was found between thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness. Significance Thin-film bond strength test is a valid and reliable means of evaluating bond strength in the vicinity of the adhesive interface and is more accurate than other methods currently in use. Further, the thin-film bond strength is influenced by the hardness of the cued bonding agent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e55-e62
JournalDental Materials
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Bonding agent
  • Indentation hardness
  • Scratch test
  • Thin-film bond strength

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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