Reintervention and mortality risk after total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair

Kevin M. Beers, Christian P. Jacobsen, Stewart R. Miller, David G. Lehenbauer, Elaine Maldonado, S. Adil Husain, John H. Calhoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Management of total anomalous pulmonary venous connections has been extensively studied to further improve outcomes. Our institution previously reported factors associated with mortality, recurrent obstruction, and reintervention. The study purpose was to revisit the cohort of patients and evaluate factors associated with reintervention, and mortality in early and late follow-up. Methods: A retrospective review at our institution identified 81 patients undergoing total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair from January 2002 to January 2018. Demographic and operative variables were evaluated. Anastomotic reintervention (interventional or surgical) and/or mortality were primary endpoints. Results: Eighty-one patients met the study criteria. Follow-up ranged from 0 to 6,291 days (17.2 years), a mean of 1263 days (3.5 years). Surgical mortality was 16.1% and reintervention rates were 19.8%. In re-interventions performed, 80% occurred within 1.2 years, while 94% of mortalities were within 4.1 months. Increasing cardiopulmonary bypass times (p = 0.0001) and the presence of obstruction at the time of surgery (p = 0.025) were predictors of mortality, while intracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection type (p = 0.033) was protective. Risk of reintervention was higher with increasing cardiopulmonary bypass times (p = 0.015), single ventricle anatomy (p = 0.02), and a post-repair gradient >2 mmHg on transesophageal echocardiogram (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Evaluation of a larger cohort with longer follow-up demonstrated the relationship of anatomic complexity and symptoms at presentation to increased mortality risk after total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair. The presence of a single ventricle or a post-operative confluence gradient >2 mmHg were risk factors for reintervention. These findings support those found in our initial study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2228-2235
Number of pages8
JournalCardiology in the Young
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 13 2023


  • Paediatric cardiac surgery
  • reintervention (pulmonary vein stenosis)
  • total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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