Regulation of statoconia mineralization in Aplysia californica in vitro

H. A. Pedrozo, Zvi Schwartz, David D Dean, M. L. Wiederhold, B. D. Boyan

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18 Scopus citations


Statoconia are calcium carbonate inclusions in the lumen of the gravity-sensing organ, the statocyst, of Aplysia californica. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of carbonic anhydrase and urease in statoconia mineralization in vitro. The experiments were performed using a previously described culture system (Pedrozo et al., J. Comp. Physiol. (A) 177:415-425). Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by acetazolamide decreased statoconia production and volume, while inhibition of urease by acetohydroxamic acid reduced total statoconia number, but had no affect on statoconia volume. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase initially increased and then decreased the statocyst pH, whereas inhibition of urease decreased statocyst pH at all times examined; simultaneous addition of both inhibitors also decreased pH. These effects were dose and time dependent. The results show that carbonic anhydrase and urease are required for statoconia formation and homeostasis, and for regulation of statocyst pH. This suggests that these two enzymes regulate mineralization at least partially through regulation of statocyst pH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)371-377
Number of pages7
JournalConnective Tissue Research
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - 1996


  • Aplysia californica
  • Calcium carbonate
  • Carbonic anhydrase
  • Statoconia
  • Urease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Immunology
  • Nephrology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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