The present study was designed to test the effects of a free radical generating tumor promoter, chrysarobin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9-anthrone), on the growth and progression of papillomas generated in the skin of SENCAR mice. In the first set of experiments, papillomas were generated by initiation with 6.4 μg of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) followed by promotion with once-weekly applications of 52.8 μg chrysarobin for 10 weeks. The fate of individual papillomas was then monitored for a 20 week interval following cessation of promoter treatment. Five weeks after the cessation of chrysarobin treatment, the papilloma response reached a maximum of 13.2 papillomas/mouse. By the end of the 20 week interval 19% and 18% of the papillomas had regressed or coalesced respectively. A three-stage treatment protocol was also utilized to test the ability of chrysarobin to enhance the progression of pre-existing papillomas to squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). In stage I, mice were initiated with 0.5 μg of DMBA. In stage II, mice were promoted with twice-weekly applications of 1 or 2 μg of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 15 weeks. Then, in stage III, mice were treated with acetone, TPA (1 or 2 μg), chrysarobin (52.8 Gig) or benzoyl peroxide (BzPo; 20 mg) for the next 45 weeks. The mean number of papillomas per mouse at plateau was very similar for all groups. The carcinoma incidence was also similar for all groups regardless of the treatment protocol used, as was the mean number of carcinomas per mouse. The ratio of papillomas that converted to SCCs in mice treated with chrysarobin during stage III was not significantly different from the acetone controls or any of the other treatment groups (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis analysis). In addition, BzPo did not enhance the progression of papillomas to SCCs under the current experimental conditions. Collectively, the results indicate that papillomas promoted by chrysarobin have growth properties similar to those promoted by TPA under similar experimental conditions. Furthermore, despite its ability to generate free radical intermediates, chrysarobin does not enhance the malignant progression of pre-existing papillomas induced by TPA treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research