Regional deformation of the canine diaphragm

J. L. Pean, C. J. Chuong, M. Ramanathan, R. L. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


To follow regional deformation of the diaphragm in dogs, radiopaque markers were implanted under surgical anesthesia into different anatomic regions of the muscle in triangular arrays (~1 cm to a side). After recovery from surgery, changes in area and shape of the triangles were followed with biplane cinefluorography during quiet breathing and during inspiratory efforts against an occluded airway (Mueller maneuvers). From changes in shape of the triangles during contraction, area changes were decomposed into a major direction and magnitude of shortening (Eg1) and a minor length change (Eg2) perpendicular to Eg1, both expressed as a fraction of initial length at end expiration. With the use of these techniques, systematic differences in regional area change were observed in different parts of the diaphragm during inspiratory efforts at different lung volumes. Regional area always decreased during contraction in the crural and midcostal zones of apposition to the rib cage. Area decreased less and often increased during inspiratory efforts in the costal dome near the central tendon and in the costal region near its rib cage insertion. Differences in regional area change were not due to differences in the Eg1 in different parts of the diaphragm but were a consequence of differences in widening of the muscle along Eg2 perpendicular to the direction of Eg1. As lung volume was passively increased above functional residual capacity, regional area decreased in all parts of the diaphragm except in the costal regions near rib cage insertion, where area increased.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1581-1588
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of applied physiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1991


  • Mueller maneuvers
  • biplane cinefluorography
  • continuum mechanics
  • radiopaque markers
  • regional mechanics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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