Regenerative endodontics A way forward

Anibal R Diogenes, Nikita B. Ruparel, Yoav Shiloah, Kenneth M. Hargreaves

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

141 Scopus citations


Background and Overview Immature teeth are susceptible to infections due to trauma, anatomic anomalies, and caries. Traditional endodontic therapies for immature teeth, such as apexification procedures, promote resolution of the disease and prevent future infections. However, these procedures fail to promote continued root development, leaving teeth susceptible to fractures. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) have evolved in the past decade, being incorporated into endodontic practice and becoming a viable treatment alternative for immature teeth. The authors have summarized the status of regenerative endodontics on the basis of the available published studies and provide insight into the different levels of clinical outcomes expected from these procedures. Conclusions Substantial advances in regenerative endodontics are allowing a better understanding of a multitude of factors that govern stem cell-mediated regeneration and repair of the damaged pulp-dentin complex. REPs promote healing of apical periodontitis, continued radiographic root development, and, in certain cases, vitality responses. Despite the clinical success of these procedures, they appear to promote a guided endodontic repair process rather than a true regeneration of physiological-like tissue. Practical Implications Immature teeth with pulpal necrosis with otherwise poor prognosis can be treated with REPs. These procedures do not preclude the possibility of apexification procedures if attempts are unsuccessful. Therefore, REPs may be considered first treatment options for immature teeth with pulpal necrosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)372-380
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Dental Association
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2016


  • Key Words Guided tissue regeneration
  • endodontic therapy
  • outcome assessment
  • regenerative endodontics
  • revascularization
  • stem cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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