Reducing barriers to post-9/11 veterans' use of programs and services as they transition to civilian life

Nicole R. Morgan, Keith R. Aronson, Keith R. Aronson, Keith R. Aronson, Daniel F. Perkins, Daniel F. Perkins, Daniel F. Perkins, Julia A. Bleser, Katie Davenport, Dawne Vogt, Dawne Vogt, Laurel A. Copeland, Laurel A. Copeland, Laurel A. Copeland, Erin P. Finley, Erin P. Finley, Cynthia L. Gilman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: Numerous programs exist to support veterans in their transitions to civilian life. Programs are offered by a host of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders. Veterans report encountering many barriers to program participation. This study identified barrier reduction strategies offered by programs that new post-9/11 veterans reported using, determined which strategies veterans use and value, and examined veteran characteristics that impact their odds of using programs that offer barrier reduction strategies. Method: This study reflects findings from the first wave of data collection of The Veterans Metrics Initiative (TVMI), a longitudinal study examining the military-to-civilian reintegration of new post-9/11 veterans. The websites of programs used by respondents were coded for barrier reduction components. Veterans also indicated which barrier reduction components they found most helpful in meeting their reintegration goals. Results: Of 9566 veterans who participated in Wave 1 data collection, 84% reported using a program that offered at least one barrier reduction component. Barrier reduction components included tangible supports (e.g., scholarships, cash), increased access to programs, decreased stigma, and encouraged motivation to change. Although only 4% of programs that were used by veterans focused on helping them obtain Veterans Administration benefits, nearly 60% of veterans reported that this component was helpful in reaching their goals. Access assistance to other resources and supports was also reported as a helpful barrier reduction component. For instance, approximately 20% of veterans nominated programs that offered transportation. The study also found evidence of a misalignment between the kinds of barrier reduction components veterans valued and those which programs offered. Veterans from the most junior enlisted ranks, who are at most risk, were less likely than those from other ranks to use barrier reduction components. Study limitations and ideas for future research are discussed. Conclusions: Despite the evidence that barrier reduction components enhance access to programs and contribute to program sustainability, many programs used by post-9/11 veterans do not offer them. There was also a misalignment between the barrier reduction strategies that veterans value and the strategies offered by programs. Veteran serving organizations should increasingly implement barrier reduction strategies valued by veterans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number525
JournalBMC Health Services Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 10 2020


  • Barrier reduction
  • Help-seeking stigma
  • Mental health stigma
  • Program reach
  • Program sustainability
  • Veteran reintegration
  • Veterans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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