Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulation of bone formation around endosseous dental implants

David L. Cochran, Robert Schenk, Daniel Buser, John M. Wozney, Archie A. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

170 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Successful endosseous implant placement requires that the implant be stable in alveolar bone. In certain cases, the implant can be stabilized in native bone but some part of the implant is not covered by bone tissue. This often occurs during placement of implants into extraction sites or in areas where bone resorption has occurred and the ridge width is not sufficient to completely surround the implant. In those cases, the clinician usually employs a procedure to encourage bone formation. These procedures typically include a bone graft and/or membrane therapy. Recent advances have led to the isolation, cloning, and production of recombinant human proteins that stimulate bone formation. One of these bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMP-2) has been extensively studied in animal models and is currently being tested in human clinical trials. Methods: In this study, rhBMP-2 was tested using a collagen sponge carrier to stimulate bone formation in defects in the canine mandible around endosseous dental implants. Six animals had a total of 48 implants placed. rhBMP-2 with the collagen carrier was implanted around 24 of these, the remainder having only the collagen carrier placed. Half the sites were covered with a non-resorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. Histologic analysis was performed after 4 and 12 weeks. The area of new bone formed, percentage of bone-to-implant contact in the defect area, and percentage fill of the defect was calculated. Results: The addition of rhBMP-2 resulted in significantly greater amounts of new bone area and percentage of bone-to-implant contact and with more percentage fill after 4 and 12 weeks of healing. The area of new bone formed was reduced after 4 weeks when a membrane was present but after 12 weeks, there was no significant difference between membrane and non-membrane treated sites. In some specimens, new bone was found coronal to the membranes, with rhBMP-2 - treated sites having greater amounts than non-rhBMP-2 - treated sites. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that a bone differentiation factor significantly stimulates bone formation in peri-implant bone defects in the canine mandible. In addition, bone-to-implant contact was significantly enhanced along the rough implant surface. Membrane-treated sites had less new bone formation after 4 weeks of healing but were similar to non-membrane sites after 12 weeks. These results demonstrate that rhBMP-2 can be used to stimulate bone growth both around and onto the surface of endosseous dental implants placed in sites with extended peri-implant osseous defects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-150
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of periodontology
Volume70
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 1999

Keywords

  • Animal studies
  • Bone morphogenic protein
  • Collagen/therapeutic use
  • Dental implants, endosseous
  • Membranes, artificial
  • Membranes, barrier
  • Osteogenesis
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene/therapeutic use
  • Titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics

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