Racial differences in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States: A social and economic dilemma

T. Palmer Alves, J. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as an eGFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2, affects up to 25% of the United States population. In addition, it is estimated that approximately 6% of the population have early evidence of CKD and will likely progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the near future. Further, ESRD is more common in many ethnic minorities, with African-Americans having the highest rates of treated ESRD, closely followed by Hispanic Americans, when compared to non-Hispanic White persons. Although African-Americans with CKD are more likely to die than non-Hispanic White persons with CKD, these trends reverse once progression to ESRD is established. The reasons for the disparities in the prevalence and incidence of CKD, ESRD, and mortality are unclear, but likely involve a complex interaction of socioeconomic, environmental and genetic factors. This review highlights current data pertaining to the social and economic impact of ethnic differences in the prevalence and incidence of CKD and ESRD in the United Stated. It is hoped that highlighting the current trend of kidney related health disparities will not only lead to an improved understanding of these issues, but also more informed research agendas, that are ultimately aimed at alleviating ethnic differences in kidney health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S72-S77
JournalClinical Nephrology
Volume74
Issue numberSUPPL.1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010

Keywords

  • CKD
  • ESRD
  • Ethnicity
  • Health disparities
  • Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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