Phospholipids play important roles in biological process even at a very low level. For example, bis(monoacylglycerol)phosphate (BMP) is involved in the pathogenesis of lysosomal storage diseases, and polyphosphoinositides (PPI) play critical roles in cellular signaling and functions. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG), a structural isomer of BMP, mediates lipid–protein and lipid–lipid interactions, and inhibits platelet activating factor and phosphatidylcholine transferring. However, due to their low abundance, the analysis of these phospholipids from biological samples is technically challenging. Therefore, the cellular function and metabolism of these phospholipids are still elusive. This chapter overviews a novel method of shotgun lipidomics after methylation with trimethylsilyl-diazomethane (TMS-D) for accurate and comprehensive analysis of these phospholipid species in biological samples. Firstly, a modified Bligh and Dyer procedure is performed to extract tissue lipids for PPI analysis, whereas modified methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE) extraction and modified Folch extraction methods are described to extract tissue lipids for PPI analysis. Secondly, TMS-D methylation is performed to derivatize PG/BMP and PPI, respectively. Then, we described the shotgun lipidomics strategies that can be used as cost-effective and relatively high-throughput methods to determine BMP, PG, and PPI species and isomers with different phosphate position(s) and fatty acyl chains. The described method of shotgun lipidomics after methylation achieves feasible and reliable quantitative analysis of low-abundance lipid classes. The application of this novel method should enable us to reveal the metabolism and functions of these phospholipids in healthy and disease states.