Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express an osteoblastic phenotype when treated with BMP-2, and BMP-2 is used clinically to induce bone formation although high doses are required. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) also promote osteogenesis in vivo, in part through direct action on osteoblasts. We tested the hypothesis that PEMF enhances osteogenesis of MSCs in the presence of an inductive stimulus like BMP-2. Confluent cultures of human MSCs were grown on calcium phosphate disks and were treated with osteogenic media (OM), OM containing 40 ng/mL rhBMP-2, OM + PEMF (8 h/day), or OM + BMP-2 + PEMF. MSCs demonstrated minor increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) during 24 days in culture and no change in osteocalcin. OM increased ALP and osteocalcin by day 6, but PEMF had no additional effect at any time. BMP-2 was stimulatory over OM, and PEMF + BMP-2 synergistically increased ALP and osteocalcin. PEMF also enhanced the effects of BMP-2 on PGE2, latent and active TGF-β1, and osteoprotegerin. Effects of PEMF on BMP-2-treated cells were greatest at days 12 to 20. These results demonstrate that PEMF enhances osteogenic effects of BMP-2 on MSCs cultured on calcium phosphate substrates, suggesting that PEMF will improve MSC response to BMP-2 in vivo in a bone environment.
- Calcium phosphate substrates
- Human mesenchymal stem cells
- Osteoblast differentiation
- Pulsed electromagnetic fields
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine