Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


Stimulants have been in use for the treatment of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders since the 1930's. Various formulations of methylphenidate (MPH) and amphetamine (AMP) have been the subject of hundreds of clinical trials since the late 1960's; controlled trials in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) show a response rate of approximately 60% for any given class of stimulant, with a response rate up to 90% if both MPH and AMP are tried. Stimulants act as agonist of both dopamine and norepinephrine, and animal studies suggest action through norepinephrine and dopamine receptors in the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies have shown that MPH can increase dopamine in brain in vivo and these changes correlate with clinical response. Clinical guidelines as for the use of stimulants are discussed in detail, including recent studies regarding their effects on long-term growth and the cardiovascular system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPharmacotherapy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders
Subtitle of host publicationThird Edition
PublisherJohn Wiley and Sons
Number of pages40
ISBN (Print)9780470973769
StatePublished - Feb 17 2012


  • Amphetamine
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)
  • Dopamine
  • Methylphenidate
  • Norepinephrine
  • Stimulants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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