The idea that type 2 diabetes is associated with augmented innate immune function characterized by increased circulating levels of acute phase reactants and altered macrophage biology is fairly well established, even though the mechanisms involved in this complex interaction still are not entirely clear. To date, the majority of studies investigating innate immune function in type 2 diabetes are limited to the context of wound healing, atherosclerosis, stroke, and other commonly identified comorbidities. Several important recurring themes come out of these data. First, type 2 diabetes is associated with a state of chronic, subclinical inflammation. Second, in macrophages, type 2 diabetic conditions enhance proinflammatory reactions and impair anti-inflammatory responses. Third, after acute activation of the innate immune system in type 2 diabetes, recovery or resolution of inflammation is impaired. The consequences of type 2 diabetes-associated inflammatory alterations on PNI processes have been recognized only recently. Given the impact of diminished emotional well-being on the quality of life in patients who have type 2 diabetes, diabetes-induced exacerbation of PNI responses should be considered a serious complication of type 2 diabetes that warrants further clinical attention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology