Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) increases platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGFB) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) production and secretion by proximal tubule (PT) cells through LPA2 receptor-Gqa-avb6-integrin-mediated activation of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGFB1). LPA2, b6-integrin, PDGFB, and CTGF increase in kidneys after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), coinciding with fibrosis. The TGFB1 receptor antagonist SD-208 prevents increases of b6-integrin, TGFB1-SMAD signaling, and PDGFB/ CTGF expression after IRI and ameliorates fibrosis (Geng H, Lan R, Singha PK, Gilchrist A, Weinreb PH, Violette SM, Weinberg JM, Saikumar P, Venkatachalam MA. Am J Pathol 181: 1236-1249, 2012; Geng H, Lan R, Wang G, Siddiqi AR, Naski MC, Brooks AI, Barnes JL, Saikumar P, Weinberg JM, Venkatachalam MA. Am J Pathol 174: 1291-1308, 2009). We report now that LPA1 receptor signaling through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ERK1/2-activator protein-1 cooperates with LPA2-dependent TGFB1 signaling to additively increase PDGFB/CTGF production and secretion by PT cells. Conversely, inhibition of both pathways results in greater suppression of PDGFB/CTGF production and secretion and promotes greater PT cellular differentiation than inhibiting one pathway alone. Antagonism of the LPA-generating enzyme autotaxin suppressed signaling through both pathways. After IRI, kidneys showed not only more LPA2, nuclear SMAD2/3, and PDGFB/CTGF but also increased LPA1 and autotaxin proteins, together with enhanced EGFR/ERK1/2 activation. Remarkably, the TGFB1 receptor antagonist SD-208 prevented all of these abnormalities excepting increased LPA2. SD-208 inhibits only one arm of LPA signaling: LPA2-Gqa-avb6-integrin-dependent production of active TGFB1 and its receptor-bound downstream effects. Consequently, far-reaching protection by SD-208 against IRI-induced signaling alterations and tubule-interstitial pathology is not fully explained by our data. TGFB1-dependent feedforward modulation of LPA1 signaling is one possibility. SD-208 effects may also involve mitigation of injury caused by IRI-induced TGFB1 signaling in endothelial cells and monocytes. Our results have translational implications for using TGFB1 receptor antagonists, LPA1 and LPA2 inhibitors concurrently, and autotaxin inhibitors in acute kidney injury to prevent the development of chronic kidney disease.
- Acute kidney injury
- Lysophosphatidic acid receptors
ASJC Scopus subject areas