Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X)

Steven M. Haffner, Rodolfo A. Valdez, Helen P Hazuda, Braxton D. Mitchell, Philip A. Morales, Michael P. Stern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1078 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Many studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia and/or insulin resistance are related to various metabolic and physiological disorders including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This syndrome has been termed Syndrome X. An important limitation of previous studies has been that they all have been cross sectional, and thus the presence of insulin resistance could be a consequence of the underlying metabolic disorders rather than its cause. We examined the relationship of fasting insulin concentration (as an indicator of insulin resistance) to the incidence of multiple metabolic abnormalities in the 8-yr follow-up of the cohort enrolled in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. In univariate analyses, fasting insulin was related to the incidence of the following conditions: hypertension, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, increased triglyceride concentration, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Hyperinsulinemia was not related to increased low-density lipoprotein or total cholesterol concentration. In multivariate analyses, after adjustment for obesity and body fat distribution, fasting insulin continued to be significantly related to the incidence of decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride concentrations and to the incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Baseline insulin concentrations were higher in subjects who subsequently developed multiple metabolic disorders. These results were not attributable to differences in baseline obesity and were similar in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. These results support the existence of a metabolic syndrome and the relationship of that syndrome to multiple metabolic disorders by showing that elevations of insulin concentration precede the development of numerous metabolic disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)715-722
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes
Volume41
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1992

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Insulin Resistance
Insulin
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Fasting
Incidence
Hyperinsulinism
HDL Cholesterol
Triglycerides
Obesity
Hypertension
Multiple Abnormalities
Body Fat Distribution
Dyslipidemias
LDL Lipoproteins
Cardiovascular Diseases
Multivariate Analysis
Cholesterol
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Haffner, S. M., Valdez, R. A., Hazuda, H. P., Mitchell, B. D., Morales, P. A., & Stern, M. P. (1992). Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X). Diabetes, 41(6), 715-722.

Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X). / Haffner, Steven M.; Valdez, Rodolfo A.; Hazuda, Helen P; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Morales, Philip A.; Stern, Michael P.

In: Diabetes, Vol. 41, No. 6, 06.1992, p. 715-722.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Haffner, SM, Valdez, RA, Hazuda, HP, Mitchell, BD, Morales, PA & Stern, MP 1992, 'Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X)', Diabetes, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 715-722.
Haffner SM, Valdez RA, Hazuda HP, Mitchell BD, Morales PA, Stern MP. Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X). Diabetes. 1992 Jun;41(6):715-722.
Haffner, Steven M. ; Valdez, Rodolfo A. ; Hazuda, Helen P ; Mitchell, Braxton D. ; Morales, Philip A. ; Stern, Michael P. / Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X). In: Diabetes. 1992 ; Vol. 41, No. 6. pp. 715-722.
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