Progress Identifying and Analyzing the Human Proteome: 2021 Metrics from the HUPO Human Proteome Project

Gilbert S. Omenn, Lydie Lane, Christopher M. Overall, Young Ki Paik, Ileana M. Cristea, Fernando J. Corrales, Cecilia Lindskog, Susan Weintraub, Michael H.A. Roehrl, Siqi Liu, Nuno Bandeira, Sudhir Srivastava, Yu Ju Chen, Ruedi Aebersold, Robert L. Moritz, Eric W. Deutsch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The 2021 Metrics of the HUPO Human Proteome Project (HPP) show that protein expression has now been credibly detected (neXtProt PE1 level) for 18 »357 (92.8%) of the 19 »778 predicted proteins coded in the human genome, a gain of 483 since 2020 from reports throughout the world reanalyzed by the HPP. Conversely, the number of neXtProt PE2, PE3, and PE4 missing proteins has been reduced by 478 to 1421. This represents remarkable progress on the proteome parts list. The utilization of proteomics in a broad array of biological and clinical studies likewise continues to expand with many important findings and effective integration with other omics platforms. We present highlights from the Immunopeptidomics, Glycoproteomics, Infectious Disease, Cardiovascular, Musculo-Skeletal, Liver, and Cancers B/D-HPP teams and from the Knowledgebase, Mass Spectrometry, Antibody Profiling, and Pathology resource pillars, as well as ethical considerations important to the clinical utilization of proteomics and protein biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5227-5240
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Proteome Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 3 2021


  • Biology and Disease-HPP (B/D-HPP)
  • Chromosome-centric HPP (C-HPP)
  • Human Protein Atlas
  • Human Proteome Project (HPP)
  • Mass Spectrometry Interactive Virtual Environment (MassIVE)
  • PeptideAtlas
  • missing proteins (MP)
  • neXtProt protein existence (PE) metrics
  • non-MS PE1 proteins
  • uncharacterized protein existence 1 (uPE1)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry


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