Prognosis of “pre-heart failure” clinical phenotypes

Raghava S. Velagaleti, Meghan I. Short, Martin G. Larson, Ramachandran S. Vasan

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Background Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome where diagnostic certainty varies. The prognosis of individuals with some clinical features of HF, but without the fully overt syndrome, is unclear. Therefore, we sought to evaluate their natural history. Methods and results Between 1990 and 2009, all suspected HF cases in the Framingham Heart Study were adjudicated into 3 groups reflecting varying diagnostic certainty: definite (meeting HF diagnostic criteria; n = 479), possible (meeting HF criteria but with an alternative explanation for findings; n = 135), and probable (insufficient criteria for definite HF; n = 121) HF. Age-and-sex-matched individuals (n = 1112) without HF or cardiovascular disease (CVD) were controls. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we compared the possible/probable HF groups with controls regarding risk of incident definite HF, coronary heart disease (CHD), other CVD or death; and with definite HF regarding risk of latter three outcomes. During follow-up (mean 8.6 years), ~90% of individuals with possible, probable and definite HF experienced CVD events or died. Compared with controls, those with possible or probable HF experienced higher hazards for definite HF, CHD, other CVD and death (hazards ratios [HR] 1.35-9.31; p<0.05). The possible/probable groups did not differ from the definite HF group for risk of any outcome. Compared with the possible HF group, the probable HF group had a higher propensity for definite HF (HR 1.64, with a higher proportion of ischemic HF) but lower risk of death (HR 0.69). Conclusions Individuals meeting partial criteria for HF are at a substantial risk for progression to HF, CVD, and mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0231254
JournalPloS one
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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