Probable trauma associated sleep disorder in post-9/11 US Veterans

The VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Registry Workgroup

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to (1) estimate trauma associated sleep disorder (TASD) prevalence among post-9/11 era veterans and to describe differences in service and comorbid mental health clinical characteristics among individuals with and without probable TASD, and (2) estimate TASD prevalence and characteristics of reported traumatic experiences stratified by sex. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from the post-deployment mental health study of post-9/11 veterans, which enrolled and collected baseline data from 2005 to 2018. We classified veterans as having probable TASD using self-reported measures: traumatic experiences from the traumatic life events questionnaire (TLEQ) and items from the Pittsburgh sleep quality index with Addendum for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) mapped to TASD diagnostic criteria and ascertained mental health diagnoses (PTSD, major depressive disorder [MDD]) via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We calculated effect sizes as prevalence ratios (PR) for categorical variables and Hedges’ g for continuous variables. Results: Our final sample included 3618 veterans (22.7% female). TASD prevalence was 12.1% (95% CI: 11.1% to 13.2%) and sex-stratified prevalence was similar for female and male veterans. Veterans with TASD had a much higher comorbid prevalence of PTSD (PR: 3.72, 95% CI: 3.41 to 4.06) and MDD (PR: 3.93, 95% CI: 3.48 to 4.43). Combat was the highest reported most distressing traumatic experience among veterans with TASD (62.6%). When stratifying by sex, female veterans with TASD had a wider variety of traumatic experiences. Conclusions: Our results support the need for improved screening and evaluation for TASD in veterans, which is currently not performed in routine clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberzpad001
JournalSLEEP Advances
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2023


  • combat
  • military
  • nightmares
  • parasomnias
  • sleep–wake disorders
  • trauma
  • trauma associated sleep disorder
  • veterans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Internal Medicine


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