Primary mineralization at the surfaces of implants

J. Sela, U. M. Gross, D. Kohavi, J. Shani, D. D. Dean, B. D. Boyan, Z. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

38 Scopus citations

Abstract

Osteogenesis around implants is affected by the physical and chemical characteristics of the biomaterials used. The osteoprogenitor cells must migrate to the implant site and synthesize and secrete a mineralizable extracellular matrix. Because this is neo-bone formation, the mechanism by which the cells calcify their matrix involves extracellular organelles called matrix vesicles in a process termed 'primary mineralization'. Two different methods for assessing the effects of implant materials on primary mineralization are presented in this report. In the first approach, different implant materials used in dentistry and orthopedic surgery were placed in rat tibial bones after marrow ablation. Two groups of implants were used, bone-bonding and non-bonding materials. We examined the effects of the materials on calcification morphometrically by quantitating changes in matrix vesicle morphology and distribution in endosteal tissue around implants as compared with normal endosteal bone healing. In addition, matrix vesicles were isolated from the endosteal tissue around the implant as well as from the contralateral limb and were examined biochemically. The results demonstrated that bone-bonding materials induced a greater increase in matrix vesicle enzyme activity than did non-bonding materials. However, all materials caused changes in matrix vesicles that were different from those seen in normal endosteal bone formation following injury. The effects of implant materials on biochemical markers of mineralization, including specific activities of matrix vesicle alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase A2 and phosphatidylserine content, demonstrated a high correlation with the morphometric observations with regard to enhancement and/or delay of primary mineralization. In the other approach, we used a radioisotopic method to evaluate the effects of implant materials on primary mineralization. This analysis revealed that implants alter bone healing, as shown by the differential uptake of (99m)Tc and 32P in different bone compartments. Decreased 32P uptake by the organic phase in the presence of bone-bonding implants suggests that cleavage of (99m)TcMD32P into its technetium and methylene diphosphonate moieties was inhibited by the presence of the implants. In summary, these approaches to evaluating the effects of materials on primary mineralization demonstrate that the marrow ablation model can easily distinguish between bone-bonding and non-bonding materials. The use of this model can be valuable in the development of new materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)423-436
Number of pages14
JournalCritical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000

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Keywords

  • Bone formation
  • Bone marrow ablation
  • Calcification
  • Implants
  • In vivo
  • Matrix vesicles
  • Mineralization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Sela, J., Gross, U. M., Kohavi, D., Shani, J., Dean, D. D., Boyan, B. D., & Schwartz, Z. (2000). Primary mineralization at the surfaces of implants. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 11(4), 423-436. https://doi.org/10.1177/10454411000110040301