Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the intensive care unit: A review of the clinically relevant recent advancements

Holly Keyt, Paola Faverio, Marcos I. Restrepo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most commonly encountered hospital-acquired infections in intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and high costs of care. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, treatment and prevention of VAP have been extensively studied for decades, but a clear prevention strategy has not yet emerged. In this article we will review recent literature pertaining to evidence-based VAP-prevention strategies that have resulted in clinically relevant outcomes. A multidisciplinary strategy for prevention of VAP is recommended. Those interventions that have been shown to have a clinical impact include the following: (i) Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for able patients, especially in immunocompromised patients, with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or pulmonary oedema, (ii) Sedation and weaning protocols for those patients who do require mechanical ventilation, (iii) Mechanical ventilation protocols including head of bed elevation above 30 degrees and oral care, and (iv) Removal of subglottic secretions. Other interventions, such as selective digestive tract decontamination, selective oropharyngeal decontamination and antimicrobial-coated endotracheal tubes, have been tested in different studies. However, the evidence for the efficacy of these measures to reduce VAP rates is not strong enough to recommend their use in clinical practice. In numerous studies, the implementation of VAP prevention bundles to clinical practice was associated with a significant reduction in VAP rates. Future research that considers clinical outcomes as primary endpoints will hopefully result in more detailed prevention strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)814-821
Number of pages8
JournalIndian Journal of Medical Research
Volume139
Issue numberJUN
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Keywords

  • Associated pneumonia
  • Intensive care unit
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Morbidity
  • Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation
  • Prevention
  • Ventilator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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