Prevalence, Predictors, Progression, and Prognosis of Hypertension Subtypes in the Framingham Heart Study

Maximillian T. Bourdillon, Rebecca J. Song, Ibrahim Musa Yola, Vanessa Xanthakis, Ramachandran S. Vasan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of hypertension subtypes has not been well characterized in the recent era. METHODS AND RESULTS: We delineated the prevalence, predictors, progression, and prognostic significance of hypertension subtypes in 8198 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 46.5 years; 54% women). The prevalence of hypertension subtypes was as follows: nonhypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] <140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure [DBP] <90 mm Hg), 79%; isolated systolic hypertension (ISH; SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg), 8%; isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg), 4%; and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH; SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg), 9%. The prevalence of ISH and SDH increased with age. Analysis of a subsample of nonhypertensive participants demonstrated that increasing age, female sex, higher heart rate, left ventricular mass, and greater left ventricular con-centricity were predictors of incident ISH and SDH. Higher baseline DBP was associated with the risk of developing isolated diastolic hypertension and SDH, whereas higher SBP was associated with all 3 hypertension subtypes. On follow-up (median, 5.5 years), isolated diastolic hypertension often reverted to nonhypertensive BP (in 42% of participants) and ISH progressed to SDH (in 26% of participants), whereas SDH frequently transitioned to ISH (in 20% of participants). During follow-up (median, 14.6 years), 889 participants developed cardiovascular disease. Compared with the nonhypertensive group (referent), ISH (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95% CI, 1.30–1.90) and SDH (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.36–2.01) were associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, whereas isolated diastolic hypertension was not (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.68–1.57). CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension subtypes vary in prevalence with age, are dynamic during short-term follow-up, and exhibit dis-tinctive prognoses, underscoring the importance of blood pressure subphenotyping.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere024202
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 15 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • blood pressure
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cohort studies
  • epidemiology
  • hypertension
  • prognosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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