Predictors of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder: The role of educational degree and inflammatory markers

Izabela Guimarães Barbosa, Rodrigo Ferreira de Almeida, Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Giovana Carvalho Mol, Flavia da Mata Chiaccjio Leite, Isabelle E. Bauer, Antonio L. Teixeira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Background: The aim of this article was to evaluate the cognitive status of remitted patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery, and Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders (BAC-A). The BAC-A is a comprehensive test battery addressing the cognitive domains compromised in BD. We also aimed to analyze potential clinical and immune predictors of cognitive performance in BD. Methods: Remitted patients with BD (M ± S.E: 43.80 ± 10.87 years) and age-matched controls (M ± S.E: 43.52 ± 11.72) were administered clinical questionnaires and cognitive tests. Inflammatory plasma levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNFα, IL-17A, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We generated a global cognitive performance index based on BAC-A scores. Multivariate analyses compared cognitive and immune measures across groups. A regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between global cognitive performance, clinical and immune parameters in BD. Results: Remitted patients with BD performed poorly on tasks of affective processing, verbal memory, working verbal memory, and executive functioning. Patients with BD presented higher plasma levels sTNFR1, TNFα, IFN, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL10, and IL17compared with controls. Education and MMSE were found to be positively correlated with global cognitive performance. IL6 plasma levels were negatively correlated with global cognitive performance. Conclusion: The major determinants of poor cognitive performance in BD were education and IL6 plasma levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-37
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
StatePublished - Nov 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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