Prediction of coronary artery calcium in young adults using the pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youth (PDAY) risk score: The CARDIA study

Samuel S. Gidding, C. Alex McMahan, Henry C. McGill, Laura A. Colangelo, Pamela J. Schreiner, O. Dale Williams, Kiang Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Using data from autopsied young people aged 15 to 34 years, the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study developed a risk score based on age, sex, smoking status, high-density lipoprotein and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the presence of obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypertension to predict advanced coronary artery atherosclerosis. Methods: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study assessed coronary artery calcium (CAC) by computed tomography in young adults participating in the 15-year examination. The PDAY risk score was calculated from risk factors measured at the CARDIA examinations at years 0, 5, 10, and 15. Results: Odds ratios for amount of CAC (6 ordinal categories) for a 1-point increase in risk score computed from the modifiable risk factors ranged from 1.10 to 1.16 (all statistically significant). Odds ratios for presence of any amount of CAC ranged from 1.09 to 1.15 (all statistically significant), with the highest odds ratio for the risk score at year 0. An increase in risk score between years 0 and 15 increased the odds of CAC, and a decrease in risk score decreased the odds of CAC. A positive family history of cardiovascular disease increased the odds of CAC. The c statistics ranged from 0.752 to 0.770, with the highest discrimination based on the year 0 revised PDAY risk score that included family history and increased the points for the sex differential. Conclusion: The PDAY risk score predicts CAC up to 15 years before its assessment, and risk score change during 15 years affects the risk of CAC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2341-2347
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Internal Medicine
Volume166
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 27 2006

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Young Adult
Atherosclerosis
Coronary Vessels
Calcium
Odds Ratio
HDL Lipoproteins
Hyperglycemia
Coronary Artery Disease
Cardiovascular Diseases
Obesity
Smoking
Tomography
Hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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Prediction of coronary artery calcium in young adults using the pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youth (PDAY) risk score : The CARDIA study. / Gidding, Samuel S.; McMahan, C. Alex; McGill, Henry C.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Williams, O. Dale; Liu, Kiang.

In: Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 166, No. 21, 27.11.2006, p. 2341-2347.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gidding, Samuel S. ; McMahan, C. Alex ; McGill, Henry C. ; Colangelo, Laura A. ; Schreiner, Pamela J. ; Williams, O. Dale ; Liu, Kiang. / Prediction of coronary artery calcium in young adults using the pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youth (PDAY) risk score : The CARDIA study. In: Archives of Internal Medicine. 2006 ; Vol. 166, No. 21. pp. 2341-2347.
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N2 - Background: Using data from autopsied young people aged 15 to 34 years, the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study developed a risk score based on age, sex, smoking status, high-density lipoprotein and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the presence of obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypertension to predict advanced coronary artery atherosclerosis. Methods: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study assessed coronary artery calcium (CAC) by computed tomography in young adults participating in the 15-year examination. The PDAY risk score was calculated from risk factors measured at the CARDIA examinations at years 0, 5, 10, and 15. Results: Odds ratios for amount of CAC (6 ordinal categories) for a 1-point increase in risk score computed from the modifiable risk factors ranged from 1.10 to 1.16 (all statistically significant). Odds ratios for presence of any amount of CAC ranged from 1.09 to 1.15 (all statistically significant), with the highest odds ratio for the risk score at year 0. An increase in risk score between years 0 and 15 increased the odds of CAC, and a decrease in risk score decreased the odds of CAC. A positive family history of cardiovascular disease increased the odds of CAC. The c statistics ranged from 0.752 to 0.770, with the highest discrimination based on the year 0 revised PDAY risk score that included family history and increased the points for the sex differential. Conclusion: The PDAY risk score predicts CAC up to 15 years before its assessment, and risk score change during 15 years affects the risk of CAC.

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