Precision Medicine in Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: Development of the Canary-Early Detection Research Network Active Surveillance Biopsy Risk Calculator

Donna P Ankerst, Jing Xia, Ian M. Thompson, Josef Hoefler, Lisa F. Newcomb, James D. Brooks, Peter R. Carroll, William J. Ellis, Martin E. Gleave, Raymond S. Lance, Peter S. Nelson, Andrew A. Wagner, John T. Wei, Ruth Etzioni, Daniel W. Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Men on active surveillance (AS) face repeated biopsies. Most biopsy specimens will not show disease progression or change management. Such biopsies do not contribute to patient management and are potentially morbid and costly. Objective: To use a contemporary AS prospective trial to develop a tool to predict AS biopsy outcomes. Design, setting, and participants: Biopsy samples (median: 2; range: 2-9 per patient) from 859 men participating in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study and with Gleason 6 prostate cancer (median follow-up: 35.8 mo; range: 3.0-148.7 mo) were analyzed. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Logistic regression was used to predict progression, defined as an increase in Gleason score from ≤6 to ≥7 or increase in percentage of cores positive for cancer from <34% to ≥34%. Fivefold internal cross-validation was performed to evaluate the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results and limitations: Statistically significant risk factors for progression on biopsy were prostate-specific antigen (odds ratio [OR]: 1.045; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.028-1.063), percentage of cores positive for cancer on most recent biopsy (OR: 1.401; 95% CI, 1.301-1.508), and history of at least one prior negative biopsy (OR: 0.524; 95% CI, 0.417-0.659). A multivariable predictive model incorporating these factors plus age and number of months since last biopsy achieved an AUC of 72.4%. Conclusions: A combination of readily available clinical measures can stratify patients considering AS prostate biopsy. Risk of progression or upgrade can be estimated and incorporated into clinical practice. Patient summary: The Canary-Early Detection Research Network Active Surveillance Biopsy Risk Calculator, an online tool, can be used to guide patient decision making regarding follow-up prostate biopsy. Urologists can now use the active surveillance biopsy risk calculator to individualize patients' surveillance biopsy schedules. This approach may be attractive to many patients and may increase their participation in joint decision making during follow-up.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEuropean Urology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2015

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Keywords

  • Active surveillance
  • Biopsy
  • Progression
  • Prostate-specific antigen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Ankerst, D. P., Xia, J., Thompson, I. M., Hoefler, J., Newcomb, L. F., Brooks, J. D., Carroll, P. R., Ellis, W. J., Gleave, M. E., Lance, R. S., Nelson, P. S., Wagner, A. A., Wei, J. T., Etzioni, R., & Lin, D. W. (Accepted/In press). Precision Medicine in Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: Development of the Canary-Early Detection Research Network Active Surveillance Biopsy Risk Calculator. European Urology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.03.023