A practice parameter has been developed to assist physicians in the therapeutic use of red blood cell transfusions. The developers of this parameter used the best available information from the medical literature, as well as clinical experience and the extensive reality testing required by the College of American Pathologists for approval. In acute anemia, a fall in hemoglobin values below 6 g/dL or a rapid blood volume loss of more than 30% to 40% requires red blood cell transfusions in most patients. However, tissue oxygenation provides a better indication of physiologic need in situations where invasive monitoring provides this information. When these data are not available, heart rate and blood pressure measurements and the nature of bleeding (active, controlled, uncontrolled) supplement the hemoglobin value in guiding the transfusion decision. In sickle cell disease and thalassemias, red blood cells are transfused to prevent acute or chronic complications. Red blood cell transfusions are used in chronic anemias unresponsive to pharmacologic agents based on the patient's symptoms. Guidelines must be altered for neonates who require an increase in hematocrit to above 0.30 to 0.35 when respiratory distress is present. Indications for red blood cell transfusion for the pregnant or postpartum patient are similar to those for the nonpregnant patient. Risks of transfusion, particularly transmissible disease and incompatibility, remain but have been reduced. Thus, red blood cell transfusion continues to be a powerful therapeutic tool when used judiciously and carries less risk than in the recent past.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine|
|State||Published - Feb 1998|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Medical Laboratory Technology