Neil Bryan Newman, Mohit S. Agarwal, Natalie A. Ridge

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


To detect a statistical difference in a clinical study, it is imperative to design the trial with the appropriate sample size which depends on properly powering the study. With too few subjects, one risks being unable to delineate if there is a true difference between two study populations. Conversely, if the sample is too large, then one risks inappropriately utilizing resources toward detecting minuscule and likely clinically irrelevant differences. Ensuring that one has the appropriate number of subjects to detect a difference or effect, should one exist, is the definition of power. Power determines if a study hypothesis suggesting a true difference exists can be appropriately accepted, and whether the null hypothesis suggesting no difference exists between study groups in the underlying population can be rejected. It determines the sample size that is needed for prospective studies inclusive of nonrandomized and randomized control trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTranslational Radiation Oncology
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9780323884235
ISBN (Print)9780323884242
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Hypofractionation
  • Minimally detectable difference
  • Power calculation
  • Randomized control trials
  • Statistical difference
  • Statistical error

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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