Potential of porous poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide particles as a carrier for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 during osteoinduction in vivo

B. D. Boyan, C. H. Lohmann, A. Somers, G. G. Niederauer, J. M. Wozney, D. D. Dean, D. L. Carnes, Z. Schwartz

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Abstract

Several different biodegradable bone graft materials are in clinical or preclinical use for the repair of bone defects in orthopedics, maxillofacial surgery, and periodontics. This study tested the hypothesis that poly-D,L- lactide-co-glycolide copolymer (PLG) can be used as an effective carrier of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and that the composite has osteoinductive ability. Porous PLG rods were shredded to a particle size ranging from 250 to 850 μm. Active and inactive demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBA) with a comparable particle size were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. PLG particles were treated with vehicle or with 5 or 20 μg rhBMP-2. DFDBA and PLG particles were placed in gelatin capsules, mixed with vehicle or rhBMP-2, and implanted at intramuscular sites in male Nu/Nu (nude) mice. Each mouse underwent bilateral implantation with implants of the same formulation, resulting in five groups of four mice per group: active DFDBA, inactive DFDBA, PLG, PLG + 5 μg rhBMP-2, and PLG + 20 μg rhBMP-2. After 56 days, the implants were recovered and processed for histology. Bone induction was assessed by use of a semiquantitative scoring system based on the amount of new bone formed in representative histological sections. Histomorphometry was also used to measure the area of new bone formed and the area of residual implant material. The results showed that active DFDBA induced the formation of ossicles containing new bone with bone marrowlike tissue, whereas inactive DFDBA or PLG particles alone did not induce new bone. The addition of rhBMP- 2 to PLG particles resulted in new bone formation that had a greater bone induction score than active DFDBA. Moreover, the histomorphometric analysis showed that the addition of rhBMP-2 to PLG particles induced the formation of a greater area of new bone and bone marrowlike tissue than active DFDBA. The resorption of the PLG particles was markedly increased with the addition of rhBMP-2, suggesting that rhBMP-2 may attract and regulate resorptive cells at the implantation site. The results of the present study indicate that PLG copolymers are good carriers for BMP and promote the induction of new bone formation. Further, the PLG copolymers with rhBMP-2 had a greater effect in inducing new bone formation and resorbing the implanted material than active DFDBA alone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-59
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research
Volume46
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 27 1999

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Keywords

  • Bone graft substitute
  • Bone morphogenetic protein carrier
  • Osteoinduction
  • Poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide copolymer
  • Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

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