Objective: Evaluate nebulized tranexamic acid (TXA) as a treatment to reduce the need for an operation to control a post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH). Methods: Based on a successful case report of a child treated with nebulized TXA for PTH in 2018, our institution began to treat PTH patients with three doses of nebulized TXA. To evaluate the outcomes of this non-invasive management, we conducted a three-year retrospective cohort study of children presenting with PTH from 2016 to 2019. Demographics, insurance, and laboratory information were collected from all pediatric tonsillectomies with and without adenoidectomy performed during the study period. Tonsillar fossae observations of bleeding and clot were documented before and after receiving TXA. Results: The incidence of pediatric PTH at our institution during the study period was 5.4%. Fourteen out of 58 PTH patients received nebulized TXA. Receiving nebulized TXA had no adverse events and over 60% showed resolution of bleeding on exam. Receiving nebulized TXA compared to routine care decreased the need for an operation to restore hemostasis by 44%, p < 0.005. There was no significant difference in age, gender, body mass index, hemoglobin, platelet count, trainee presence, or Medicaid status between the children that received TXA and those that did not. Conclusion: Treatment of PTH with nebulized TXA may be a safe first-line therapy to decrease the need for operative control of bleeding. This data suggests that a large clinical trial is needed to determine the efficacy of nebulized TXA to mitigate this common and potentially fatal post-operative complication. Level of evidence: 4.
|International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
|Published - Aug 2021
- Inhalation administration
- Post-operative hemorrhage
- Tranexamic acid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health