We describe two cases of hypertension and hypokalemia due to mineralocorticoid excess caused by posaconazole treatment of coccidioidomycosis and rhinocerebral mucormycosis infections, respectively. Clinical laboratory evaluations, including a comprehensive analysis of blood and urine steroid profiles, revealed low renin and aldosterone and indicated as the underlying mechanism primarily a block of 11β-hydroxylase activity in patient 1, whereas patient 2 displayed weaker 11β-hydroxylase but more pronounced 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 inhibition. The results show that both previously suggested mechanisms must be considered and emphasize significant interindividual differences in the contribution of each enzyme to the observed mineralocorticoid excess phenotype. The mineralocorticoid symptoms of patient 1 resolved after replacement of posaconazole therapy by isavoconazole, and posaconazole dosage de-escalation ameliorated the effects in patient 2. By providing a thorough analysis of the patients' blood and urine steroidmetabolites, this report adds further evidence for two individually pronounced mechanisms of posaconazole-induced hypertension and hypokalemia. The elucidation of the factors responsible for the individual phenotype warrants further research.
- 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
- Mineralocorticoid excess
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism