Portal and hepatic vein thrombosis after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: Incidence in follow-up imaging and clinical implications

Partha Mandal, Barrett P. O'Donnell, Eric Reuben Smith, Osamah Al-Bayati, Adam Khalil, Serena Jen, Mario Vela, Jorge Lopera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: This study investigated the incidence and clinical outcomes of portal and hepatic vein thrombosis (VT) on imaging after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Methods: A retrospective review of records at a single liver transplant center between 2010 and 2018 revealed 423 patients who underwent TIPS. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance images within 1 year post-TIPS were available for 138 patients and compared to assess the imaging findings of VT and liver infarction. The associations of VT with overall survival, patient characteristics, stent size, pre- and post- TIPS Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, and post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy at 90 days were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of VT on imaging within 1 year was 63.0% (n = 87). VT within the right portal vein was more common: 41 cases were in the right portal vein, 25 in the posterior portal vein, and two in the anterior right portal vein. Ten patients had VT in the left portal vein. Four had VT in the main portal vein (MPV), and one had shunt thrombosis extending into the superior mesenteric vein. Hepatic VT was seen in the right hepatic vein in 17 patients and in the middle hepatic vein in six patients. VT was associated with liver infarction (n = 9, P = 0.018). There was no relationship between VT and sex, age, cirrhosis etiology, indication for TIPS, stent size, or hepatic encephalopathy at 90 days. VT in the MPV had poorer survival (P < 0.001). Older age (P = 0.028) and higher pre-TIPS MELD score (P = 0.049) were poor prognostic factors. VT was not treated. Conclusion: Portal and hepatic VTs were common imaging findings after TIPS without worsened clinical outcomes unless VT involved the MPV. VT may cause liver infarction, but infarcts were not independently associated with poorer survival.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-23
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Gastrointestinal Intervention
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Hepatology
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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