Plasma Kidney Injury Molecule 1 in CKD: Findings From the Boston Kidney Biopsy Cohort and CRIC Studies

Chronic Kidney Disease Biomarkers Consortium and the CRIC Study Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Rationale & Objective: Plasma kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) is a sensitive marker of proximal tubule injury, but its association with risks of adverse clinical outcomes across a spectrum of kidney diseases is unknown. Study Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants: 524 individuals enrolled into the Boston Kidney Biopsy Cohort (BKBC) Study undergoing clinically indicated native kidney biopsy with biopsy specimens adjudicated for semiquantitative scores of histopathology by 2 kidney pathologists and 3,800 individuals with common forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) enrolled into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Exposure: Histopathologic lesions and clinicopathologic diagnosis in cross-sectional analyses, baseline plasma KIM-1 levels in prospective analyses. Outcomes: Baseline plasma KIM-1 levels in cross-sectional analyses, kidney failure (defined as initiation of kidney replacement therapy) and death in prospective analyses. Analytical Approach: Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models tested associations of plasma KIM-1 levels with histopathologic lesions and clinicopathologic diagnoses. Cox proportional hazards models tested associations of plasma KIM-1 levels with future kidney failure and death. Results: In the BKBC Study, higher plasma KIM-1 levels were associated with more severe acute tubular injury, tubulointerstitial inflammation, and more severe mesangial expansion after multivariable adjustment. Participants with diabetic nephropathy, glomerulopathies, and tubulointerstitial disease had significantly higher plasma KIM-1 levels after multivariable adjustment. In the BKBC Study, CKD in 124 participants progressed to kidney failure and 85 participants died during a median follow-up time of 5 years. In the CRIC Study, CKD in 1,153 participants progressed to kidney failure and 1,356 participants died during a median follow-up time of 11.5 years. In both cohorts, each doubling of plasma KIM-1 level was associated with an increased risk of kidney failure after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratios of 1.19 [95% CI, 1.03-1.38] and 1.10 [95% CI, 1.06-1.15] for BKBC and CRIC, respectively). There was no statistically significant association of plasma KIM-1 levels with death in either cohort. Limitations: Generalizability and unmeasured confounding. Conclusions: Plasma KIM-1 is associated with underlying tubulointerstitial and mesangial lesions and progression to kidney failure in 2 cohort studies of individuals with kidney diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-243.e1
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume79
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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