Phase I Trial of Temozolomide and Protracted Irinotecan in Pediatric Patients with Refractory Solid Tumors

Lars M. Wagner, Kristine R. Crews, Lisa C. Iacono, Peter J. Houghton, Christine E. Fuller, M. Beth McCarville, Robert E. Goldsby, Karen Albritton, Clinton F. Stewart, Victor M. Santana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose is to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of temozolomide and irinotecan given on a protracted schedule in 28-day courses to pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors. Experimental Design: Twelve heavily pretreated patients received 56 courses of oral temozolomide at 100 mg/m2/day for 5 days combined with i.v. irinotecan given daily for 5 days for 2 consecutive weeks at either 10 mg/m2/day (n = 6) or 15 mg/m2/day (n = 6). We assessed toxicity, the pharmacokinetics of temozolomide and irinotecan, and the DNA repair phenotype in tumor samples. Results: Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) at the higher dose level; one had grade 4 diarrhea, whereas the other had bacteremia with grade 2 neutropenia. In contrast, no patient receiving temozolomide and 10 mg/m2/day irinotecan experienced DLT. Myelosuppression was minimal and noncumulative. No pharmacokinetic interaction was observed. Drug metabolite exposures at the MTD were similar to exposures previously associated with single-agent antitumor activity. One complete response, two partial responses, and one minor response were observed in Ewing's sarcoma and neuroblastoma patients previously treated with stem cell transplant. Responding patients had low or absent O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression in tumor tissue. Conclusions: The MTD using this schedule was temozolomide (100 mg/m2/day) and irinotecan (10 mg/m2/day), with DLT being diarrhea and infection. Drug clearance was similar to single-agent values, and clinically relevant SN-38 lactone and MTIC exposures were achieved at the MTD. As predicted by xenograft models, this combination and schedule appears to be tolerable and active in pediatric solid tumors. Evaluation of a 21-day schedule is planned.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)840-848
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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