Phase 2 trial of hypoxia activated evofosfamide (TH302) for treatment of recurrent bevacizumab-refractory glioblastoma

Andrew J. Brenner, John Floyd, Lisa Fichtel, Joel Michalek, Kunal P. Kanakia, Shiliang Huang, David Reardon, Patrick Y. Wen, Eudocia Quant Lee

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27 Scopus citations


Evofosfamide (Evo or TH302) is a hypoxia-activated prodrug which is reduced leading to the release of alkylating agent bromo-isophosphoramide mustard, which has shown safety and signals of efficacy in a prior phase 1 study in recurrent glioblastoma. We performed a dual center single-arm Phase II study to expand on the safety and efficacy of Evo plus bevacizumab in bevacizumab refractory glioblastoma. 33 patients with bevacizumab refractory GBM received Evo 670 mg/m2 in combination with Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every 2 weeks. Assessments included adverse events, response, and survival. Median age of patients was 47 (range 19–76) and 24 (69%) were male. At the time of study entry, 9 (26%) had ongoing corticosteroid use. ECOG performance status was 0 or 1 in 83% of patients. Patients were mostly heavily pretreated with 77% have three or more prior regimens. A total of 12 patients (36%) suffered grade 3–4 drug associated adverse event (AE); no grade 5 AE were reported. Of the 33 evaluable patients, best response was PR in 3 (9%), SD in 14 (43%), and PD in 16 (48%) with responses confirmed by a second reviewer. Median time to progression of disease was 53 days (95% CI 42–113) and Median time to death was 129 days (95% CI 86–199 days). Progression free survival at 4 months (PFS-4) on Evo-Bev was 31%, which was a statistically significant improvement over the historical rate of 3%. The median overall survival of patients receiving Evo-Bevacizumab was 4.6 months (95% CI 2.9–6.6). The progression free survival of patients on Evo-Bevacizumab met the primary endpoint of progression free survival at 4 months of 31%, although the clinical significance of this may be limited. Given the patient population and Phase II design, these clinical outcomes will need further validation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2306
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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