Pharmacist Intervention for Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Diabetes and/or Chronic Kidney Disease

Maxwell D. Anderegg, Tyler H. Gums, Liz Uribe, Eric J. MacLaughlin, James Hoehns, Oralia V. Bazaldua, Timothy J. Ives, David L. Hahn, Christopher S. Coffey, Barry L. Carter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if hypertensive patients with comorbid diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving a pharmacist intervention had a greater reduction in mean blood pressure (BP) and improved BP control at 9 months compared with those receiving usual care; and compare Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guideline and 2014 guideline (JNC 8) BP control rates in patients with DM and/or CKD. Methods: This cluster randomized trial included 32 medical offices in 15 states. Clinical pharmacists made treatment recommendations to physicians at intervention sites. This post hoc analysis evaluated mean BP and BP control rates in the intervention and control groups. Main results: The study included 335 patients (227 intervention, 108 control) when mean BP and control rates were evaluated by JNC 7 inclusion and control criteria. When JNC 8 inclusion and control criteria were applied, 241 patients (165 intervention, 76 control) remained and were included in the analysis. The pharmacist-intervention group had significantly greater mean systolic blood pressure reduction compared with usual care at 9 months (8.64 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI] −12.8 to −4.49, p<0.001). The pharmacist-intervention group had significantly higher BP control at 9 months than usual care by either the JNC 7 or JNC 8 inclusion and control groups (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.01–3.86, p=0.0470 and OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.21–3.85, p=0.0102, respectively). Principal conclusions: This study demonstrated that a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention was effective in reducing mean systolic BP and improving BP control in patients with uncontrolled hypertension with DM and/or CKD, regardless of which BP guidelines were used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-318
Number of pages10
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2018


  • chronic kidney disease
  • diabetes
  • hypertension
  • team-based care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)


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