Phagocytosis of wear debris by osteoblasts affects differentiation and local factor production in a manner dependent on particle composition

C. H. Lohmann, Z. Schwartz, G. Köster, U. Jahn, G. H. Buchhorn, M. J. MacDougall, D. Casasola, Y. Liu, V. L. Sylvia, D. D. Dean, B. D. Boyan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

141 Scopus citations

Abstract

Wear debris is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for aseptic loosening of orthopaedic endoprostheses. Whereas the response of cells in the monocytic lineage to foreign materials has been extensively studied, little is known about cells at the bone formation site. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that the response of osteoblasts to wear debris depends on the chemical composition of the particles. We produced particles from commercially pure titanium (cpTi), Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-A), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) and obtained ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE; GUR 4150) particles from a commercial source. The equivalent circle diameters of the particles were comparable: 1.0±0.96μm for UHMWPE; 0.84±0.12μm for cpTi; 1.35±0.09μm for Ti-A, and 1.21±0.16μm for CoCr. Confluent primary human osteoblasts and MG63 osteoblast-like cells were incubated in the presence of particles for 24h. Harvested cultures were examined by transmission electron microscopy to determine if the cells had phagocytosed the particles. Particles were found intracellularly, primarily in the cytosol, in both the primary osteoblasts and MG63 cells. The chemical composition of the particles inside the cells was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Morphologically, both cell types had extensive ruffled cell membranes, less-developed endoplasmic reticulum, swollen mitochondria, and vacuolic inclusions compared with untreated cells. CpTi, Ti-A, and CoCr particles were also added to cultures of MG63 cells to assess their effect on proliferation (cell number) and differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity), and PGE2 production. All three types of particles had effects on the cells. The effect on cell number was dependent on the chemical composition of the particles; Ti-A and CoCr caused a dose-dependent increase, while cpTi particles had a biphasic effect with a maximal increase in cell number observed at the 1:10 dilution. Alkaline phosphatase specific activity was also affected and cpTi was more inhibitory than Ti-A or CoCr. PGE2 production was increased by all particles, but the magnitude of the effect was particle-dependent: CoCr>cpTi>Ti-A. This study demonstrates clearly that human osteoblast-like cells and MG63 cells can phagocytose small UHMWPE, CoCr, Ti-A, and cpTi particles. Phagocytosis of the particles is correlated with changes in morphology, and analysis of MG63 response shows that cell proliferation, differentiation, and prostanoid production are affected. This may have negative effects on bone formation adjacent to an orthopaedic implant and may initiate or contribute to the cellular events that cause aseptic loosening by inhibiting bone formation. The effects on alkaline phosphatase and PGE2 release are dependent on the chemical composition of the particles, suggesting that both the type and concentration of wear debris at an implant site may be important in determining clinical outcome. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)551-561
Number of pages11
JournalBiomaterials
Volume21
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2000

Keywords

  • Cobalt-chrome
  • Differentiation
  • Electron microscopy
  • In vitro
  • Osteoblasts
  • Phagocytosis
  • Ti-6Al-4V
  • Titanium
  • Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene
  • Wear debris

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials

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