Purpose: The baboon (Papio hamadryas spp) offers a natural primate animal model of photosensitive generalized epilepsy. This study compared changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during intermittent light stimulation (ILS) between photosensitive and asymptomatic baboons. Methods: Six photosensitive, epileptic (PS) and four nonphotosensitive, asymptomatic (CTL) baboons, matched for age, gender, and weight, were selected based on previous scalp EEG evaluation. Continuous intravenous ketamine (5-13 mg/kg) was used for sedation. Subjects underwent five sequential blood-flow PET studies within 60 min with 20 mCi 15O-labeled water. Images were acquired in 3D mode (CTI/Siemens HR+ scanner, 63 contiguous slices, 2.4-mm thickness). Three resting scans were alternated with two activation scans during ILS. ILS was performed at 25 Hz for 60 s before to 60 s after the start of an activation scan. PET images were coregistered with MRI (3T Siemens Trio, T1-weighted 3D Turboflash sequence; TE/TR/TI, 3.04/2,100/785 ms; flip angle, 13 degrees). PET scans were reviewed and corrected for motion artifact. Resting scans were contrasted with activation scans and averaged independently for both groups. Quantitative CBF analyses were performed for the occipital and motor cortices. Results: The CTL baboons showed greatest ILS-induced activation in the left middle frontal and inferior temporal gyri, left brainstem structures and right postcentral gyrus, bilateral occipital lobes, and in the posterior cingulate gyrus and cerebellum. In contrast, the PS animals showed strongest ILS activation in the right anterior cingulate and medial orbital gyri, amygdala, globus pallidum, and left inferior and superior temporal gyri. A striking finding was the absence of occipital and variable motor cortex activation in the PS animals. Deactivations were noted in the right orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in the CTL baboons and in the posterior cingulate gyrus, brainstem and cerebellum of the PS animals. Conclusions: The patterns of ILS-induced CBF changes differed between CTL and PS groups. These differences of activations and inhibitions suggest involvement of specific cortical-subcortical or networks in photosensitivity.
- Intermittent light stimulation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology