PERK promotes immunosuppressive M2 macrophage phenotype by metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic modifications through the PERK-ATF4-PSAT1 axis

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6 Scopus citations

Abstract

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a specialized organelle that participates in multiple cellular functions including protein folding, maturation, trafficking, and degradation to maintain homeostasis. However, hostile conditions in the tumor microenvironment (TME) disturb ER homeostasis. To overcome these conditions, cells activate ER stress response pathways, which are shown to augment the suppressive phenotypes of immune cells; however, the molecular mechanisms underpinning this process remain elusive. Here, we discuss a recent study by Raines et al, that suggests the role of the helper T-cell 2 (TH2) cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4), and the TME in facilitating a protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK)-signaling cascade in macrophages, which promotes immunosuppressive M2 macrophage activation and proliferation. Further, the authors showed that PERK signaling promotes both mitochondrial respirations to fulfill cellular energy requirements and signaling through ATF4, which regulate phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1) activity to mediate the serine biosynthesis pathway. These results highlight a previously uncharacterized role for PERK in cellular metabolism and epigenetic modification in M2 macrophages, and thus offers a new therapeutic strategy for overcoming the immunosuppressive effects in the TME.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e00007
JournalImmunometabolism (United States)
Volume4
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 29 2022

Keywords

  • ER stress
  • M2 macrophage
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • myeloid cell-derived suppressor cells
  • protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase
  • tumor-Associated macrophages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Immunology and Allergy

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