We designed a randomized, prospective three-arm mobilization study to determine the kinetics of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization in 60 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients primed with cyclophosphamide (CTX) in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (arm A), granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF (arm B) or GM-CSF/G-CSF (arm C). We also compared mobilization and transplant-related toxicities, pre- and post-transplant support and the probability of survival among the three arms. To date, 35 patients have been enrolled in the study; 13 patients have been enrolled in arm A, 10 patients in arm B, and 13 patients in arm C. Successful collection of the target of ≥2 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg in one to four apheresis collections was 10/13, 6/10, and 7/12 in arms A, B, and C, respectively. The differences between arms were not statistically significant. The median time to achieve the target CD34+ cells in patients who successfully mobilized the target CD34+ cells was 3 days, 2 days, and 1 day, in patients in arms A, B, and C, respectively. The time for neutrophil engraftment was 11, 10, and 10 days in arms A, B, and C, respectively. The time for platelet engraftment was 11 days for patients in all arms of the study. Most importantly, no significant differences were observed among the three arms in the duration of neutropenic fever, the extent of mucositis, diarrhea, and nausea/vomiting, or in the number of units of platelets or red cells transfused after transplantation. Risk factors associated with poor mobilization were ≥3 regimens of chemotherapy prior to mobilization, older age, and disease histology (follicular versus diffuse). Therefore, we conclude that the type of growth factor used for mobilization did not play a major role in the outcome of mobilization and recommend mobilizing NHL patients before they receive multiple regimens of chemotherapy.
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