Background: Various growth proteins have been used to encourage periodontal tissue regeneration. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the periodontal regeneration achieved with the use of a synthetic anabolic peptide (AP) combined with either beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) as the carrier. Methods: Periodontal defects were created bilaterally adjacent to four mandibular teeth in five baboons. Plaque was allowed to accumulate around wire ligatures placed into the defects. After 2 months, the wire ligatures were removed, and a notch was placed at the base of the defect. The four teeth were randomly treated with one of the following treatments: 1) saline + ACS serving as the control, 2) AP + ACS, 3) saline + β-TCP serving as another control, or 4) AP + β-TCP. The baboons were sacrificed 5 months post-treatment, and histomorphometric analyses were performed under masked conditions. Results: At 5 months post-surgery, the mean length of new cementum for sites treated with AP + ACS, AP + β-TCP, saline + ACS, saline + β-TCP amounted to 3.32±1.7 μ, 3.86±1.0 μ, 2.87±1.3 μ, and 3.15±1.9 μ, respectively. The mean width of new cementum for the corresponding values was 52.5±14.7 μ, 54.5±24.2 μ, 37.4±12.7 μ, and 48.9±12.4 μ, respectively. The mean width of new periodontal ligament for corresponding values was 246±140 μ, 166±26 μ, 251±92 μ, and 240±91 mm. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the parameters among groups in this pilot study. Conclusions: Preclinical studies showed that AP has positive anabolic effects on bone cells. In this study, no adverse tissue reactions were observed in the AP-treated sites, including root resorption, ankylosis, or a foreign body reaction. The cementum length and width were greater in the sites treated with AP versus sites treated with a control; however, these differences were not significant in the small number of animals used. Further research is needed to define the potential of AP as a periodontal therapeutic agent.
- Growth factors
- Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins
- Periodontal ligament
- Pilot study
ASJC Scopus subject areas