Peri-implant diseases and conditions: Consensus report of workgroup 4 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions

Tord Berglundh, Gary Armitage, Mauricio G. Araujo, Gustavo Avila-Ortiz, Juan Blanco, Paulo M. Camargo, Stephen Chen, David Cochran, Jan Derks, Elena Figuero, Christoph H.F. Hämmerle, Lisa J.A. Heitz-Mayfield, Guy Huynh-Ba, Vincent Iacono, Ki Tae Koo, France Lambert, Laurie McCauley, Marc Quirynen, Stefan Renvert, Giovanni E. SalviFrank Schwarz, Dennis Tarnow, Cristiano Tomasi, Hom Lay Wang, Nicola Zitzmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

581 Scopus citations


A classification for peri-implant diseases and conditions was presented. Focused questions on the characteristics of peri-implant health, peri-implant mucositis, peri-implantitis, and soft- and hard-tissue deficiencies were addressed. Peri-implant health is characterized by the absence of erythema, bleeding on probing, swelling, and suppuration. It is not possible to define a range of probing depths compatible with health; Peri-implant health can exist around implants with reduced bone support. The main clinical characteristic of peri-implant mucositis is bleeding on gentle probing. Erythema, swelling, and/or suppuration may also be present. An increase in probing depth is often observed in the presence of peri-implant mucositis due to swelling or decrease in probing resistance. There is strong evidence from animal and human experimental studies that plaque is the etiological factor for peri-implant mucositis. Peri-implantitis is a plaque-associated pathological condition occurring in tissues around dental implants, characterized by inflammation in the peri-implant mucosa and subsequent progressive loss of supporting bone. Peri-implantitis sites exhibit clinical signs of inflammation, bleeding on probing, and/or suppuration, increased probing depths and/or recession of the mucosal margin in addition to radiographic bone loss. The evidence is equivocal regarding the effect of keratinized mucosa on the long-term health of the peri-implant tissue. It appears, however, that keratinized mucosa may have advantages regarding patient comfort and ease of plaque removal. Case definitions in day-to-day clinical practice and in epidemiological or disease-surveillance studies for peri-implant health, peri-implant mucositis, and peri-implantitis were introduced. The proposed case definitions should be viewed within the context that there is no generic implant and that there are numerous implant designs with different surface characteristics, surgical and loading protocols. It is recommended that the clinician obtain baseline radiographic and probing measurements following the completion of the implant-supported prosthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S286-S291
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
StatePublished - Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • case definition
  • dental implant
  • hard tissue deficiencies
  • peri-implant mucositis
  • peri-implant tissues
  • peri-implantitis
  • soft tissue deficiencies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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