Percutaneous removal of renal and ureteral calculi was performed in 500 patients since 1979. Experience with our first 100 cases enabled us to accumulate a variety of techniques. We report our experience with the subsequent 400 cases. As judged by plain films of the kidneys, ureters and bladder, and renal tomograms without contrast medium we attained a status free of stones in 99% of the patients with renal and 94.5% with ureteral calculi. Intravenous assisted local anesthesia was used in 94% of the cases. There was no mortality and the incidence of complications was low. Most patients with renal and ureteral calculi can be managed successfully and safely by percutaneous methods with good patient tolerance and minimal convalescence.
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