Purpose: To update the oncologic outcomes and safety for microwave (MW) ablation of T1a (≤4.0 cm) and T1b (4.1–7.0 cm) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with emphasis on tumor complexity and single session treatment. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of 29 consecutive patients (30 tumors) with localized (NOMO) RCC (23 T1a; 7 T1b) treated with percutaneous MW ablation between 3/2013 and 6/2014. Primary outcomes investigated were technical success, local tumor progression (LTP), and complications. Technical success was assessed with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) immediately after MW ablation. Presence of LTP was assessed with CECT or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance at 6-month target intervals for the first two years and annually thereafter. Complications were categorized using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Results: Median tumor diameter was 2.8 cm [IQR 2.1–3.3] for T1a and 4.7 cm [IQR 4.1–5.7] for T1b tumors. Median RENAL nephrometry score was 7 [IQR 4–8] for T1a tumors and 9 [IQR 6.25–9.75] for T1b tumors. Technical success was achieved for 22 T1a (96%) and 7 T1b (100%) tumors. There were no LTP during a median imaging follow-up of 12.0 months [IQR 6–18] for the 23 patients (24 tumors) with greater than 6 months of follow-up. There were three Clavien-Dindo grade I–II complication (10%) and no Clavien-Dindo grade III–V complications (0%). All but two patients (93%) are alive without metastatic disease; two patients died after 12-month follow-up of causes unrelated to the MW ablation. Conclusion: Percutaneous MW ablation appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for low, moderate, and highly complex T1a and T1b RCC in early follow-up.
- Microwave ablation
- Renal cell carcinoma
- Tumor ablation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging