Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is a significant cause of poorly controlled hypertension and progressive renal dysfunction leading to ischemic nephropathy and other end-organ damage. The optimal treatment of renovascular disease contributing to hypertension and renal dysfunction is not known. This study compares the anatomic and functional outcomes of both open and endovascular therapy for chronic, symptomatic atherosclerotic renal artery disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of records from patients who underwent renal arterial interventions, endovascular or open bypass, between January 1984 and January 2004. Principal indications for intervention were hypertension (51%), chronic renal insufficiency (13%), and hypertension and elevated creatinine (36%). A total of 247 patients (109 males; mean age 69 ± 10, range 44-89 years) underwent 314 interventions (109 open procedures; 205 angioplasties, 71% with stent placement). There was a significant difference in 30-day mortality (4% vs. <1%; p < 0.005) between the open and endoluminal groups, but not at 1, 3, or 5 years. Patients in the open group had a higher primary patency rate at 5 years (83 ± 5% vs. 76 ± 6%; p = 0.03), but patients in the endoluminal group had a higher assisted primary patency rate at 5 years (92 ± 5% vs. 84 ± 5; p = 0.03). There was no significant difference between both treatment groups in cumulative freedom from presenting symptom or in freedom from dialysis and renal-related death. Patients who presented with hypertension were more likely to have shown improvement in their blood pressure with endoluminal intervention at 1, 3, and 5 (59 ± 6% endoluminal vs. 83 ± 5% open; p = 0.01) years. From these results we conclude that open repair and endoluminal repair of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis have similar immediate and long-term functional and anatomic outcomes. Patients who present with hypertension may have greater benefit with an endoluminal repair.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine