In this investigation, the penicillin-resistant and beta-lactamase-producing subgingival microbiota associated with adult periodontitis was identified, and the impact of a recent exposure to penicillin on the recovery of resistant organisms from this microbiota was assessed. Subjects with adult periodontitis were examined clinically and microbiologically. Twenty-one subjects had a documented history of penicillin therapy within the previous 6 months whereas an additional 21 subjects had no history of antibiotic use within 1 year. Subgingival plaque samples were cultured anaerobically on nonselective and penicillin-containing elective media. MICs and beta-lactamase production were determined for the isolates from the elective medium. The penicillin-resistant microbiota consisted primarily of gram-negative organisms, including Bacteroides, Veillonella, Haemophilus, Eikenella, and Capnocytophaga species. The prevalence (P < 0.05) and proportions (P < 0.005) of both penicillin-resistant pigmented Bacteroides and Veillonella species were significantly greater in subjects with recent penicillin exposure. Of the penicillin-resistant genera identified, beta-lactamase production was detected in species of pigmented Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, and Streptococcus. The prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing Bacteroides species was significantly greater in subjects with recent penicillin exposure (P < 0.05). Of the antibiotics examined, no single agent was uniformly effective against all of the penicillin-resistant strains, but metronidazole and clindamycin were active against all of the penicillin-resistant pigmented Bacteroides strains.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)