Infection of the central nervous system by the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) commonly results in a number of neurological impairments known, in their most severe form, as HIV-associated dementia (HAD). The persistence of HIV encephalitis (HIVE), the pathological correlate of HAD, in spite of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) underscores the importance of continued research focused on the neurobiology of HIV. To elucidate direct and indirect mechanisms of HIV neuropathogenesis, current investigation is focused on neuroinvasion, HIV-1-mediated mechanisms of neuronal damage and apoptosis, and compartmentalized evolution of virus in the brain. The aim of this review is to provide a selective overview of the most recent research on the neurobiology of HIV, adding only a brief introduction regarding established principles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience