Triglyceride (TG) is a class of neutral lipids, which functions as an energy storage depot and is important for cellular growth, metabolism, and function. The composition and content of TG molecular species are crucial factors for nutritional aspects in food chemistry and are directly associated with several diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, stroke, etc. As a result of the complexities of aliphatic moieties and their different connections/locations to the glycerol backbone in TG molecules, accurate identification of individual TG molecular species and quantitative assessment of TG composition and content are particularly challenging, even at the current stage of lipidomics development. Herein, methods developed for analysis of TG species, such as liquid chromatography−mass spectrometry with a variety of columns and different mass spectrometric techniques, shotgun lipidomics approaches, and ion-mobility-based analysis, are reviewed. Moreover, the potential limitations of the methods are discussed. It is our sincere hope that the overviews and discussions can provide some insights for researchers to select an appropriate approach for TG analysis and can serve as the basis for those who would like to establish a methodology for TG analysis or develop a new method when novel tools become available. Biologically accurate analysis of TG species with an enabling method should lead us toward improving the nutritional quality, revealing the effects of TG on diseases, and uncovering the underlying biochemical mechanisms related to these diseases.
- Mass spectrometry
- Metabolic syndrome
- Shotgun lipidomics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)