DNA damage occurs continuously as a result of various factors - intracellular metabolism, replication, and exposure to genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. If left unrepaired, this damage could result in changes or mutations within the cell genomic material. There are a number of different pathways that the cell can utilize to repair these DNA breaks. However, it is of utmost interest to know how the DNA damage is signaled to the various DNA pathways. As DNA damage occurs within the chromatin, we postulate that modifications of histones are important for signaling the position of DNA damage, recruiting the DNA repair proteins to the site of damage, and creating an open structure such that the repair proteins can access the site of damage. We discuss the modifications that occur on the histones and the manner in which they relate to the type of damage that has occurred as well as the DNA repair pathways that are activated.